- Physical factors are more important than human factors in affecting river discharge. Discuss this view.
- Describe and explain why fluvial (river) landforms change downstream.
- With reference to one case study, discuss the impact of flooding on people and the environment.
- Assess the relative importance of physical and human causes of river flooding.
- ‘Soft engineering is a better river flood management strategy than hard engineering.’ Discuss this view.
- Channel characteristics such as cross profile, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, roughness and efficiency change downstream. Describe and explain how channel characteristics change downstream.
- Compare and comment on the economic and social effects of flooding in two contrasting areas of the world.
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hard engineering as a flood management strategy.
- Describe and explain the formation of landforms resulting from rejuvenation.
Specimen and previous AS papers
- Describe and explain the development of meanders.
- With reference to one or more examples that you have studied, discuss alternative ways of managing flood plains to reduce the risks to settlements from flooding.
- How and why does the load transported by rivers vary?
- Examine the physical factors responsible for flooding.
- For river basins you have studied, examine the issues which have arisen as a result of river management.
- Using a systems approach, explain how different components of the drainage basin hydrological cycle are linked.
- Explain how flooding can contribute to the formation of depositional landforms.
- Examine the issues surrounding measures taken to manage flooding in the UK.
- Explain the formation of channel landforms typically found in the upper course of a river.
- Examine the factors that influence river discharge.
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