Revision questions for AS Rivers, Floods and management

1- Read the revision tips.
2- Revise chunks of material.
3- Quiz yourself by using the questions below.
4- Download the mark scheme of the questions included in this revision post.

Why do you need to practice past questions? Because this strategy will help you:
– Self-testing your knowledge.
– Revise exam skills.
– Make the links between the command words and the type of answers AQA expects from you.
– Create a list of key words to be included in each type of anwers.

1- The Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle (Figure) and the water balance (Figure).
You need to know the meaning of each key word  and the factors affecting each component of the drainage basin hydrological cycle.
It is an open system:
: energy from the sun/precipitation
Stores such as glaciers, rivers, lakes and vegetation
Transfers and flows move water through the system, such as infiltration.
Outputs: moisture lost by evapotranspiration + runoff into the sea

Drainage basin1- Questions from the previous AS:
(i) Distinguish
between the inputs and outputs of the drainage basin hydrological cycle. (2)
(ii) State and give reasons
for the relationship between run-off and vegetation within a drainage basin. (3 marks)
(iii) How
might human activity modify the drainage basin hydrological cycle? (7 marks)
(iv) Using a systems approach, explain how different components of the drainage basin hydrological cycle are linked. (15 marks)

2- Questions from the current AS:
(i) Describe
how water reaches a river channel in a drainage basin. (4)
(ii) (Based on photo)
Explain likely effects of the forest on river discharge. (5)

The water balance or budget: balance between inputs and outputs of a drainage basin. Dynamic relationship between temperature, precipitation and evaporation rates over the year.
Practice how to describe and explain it. Learn the meaning of the words used in the graph below.

The Water BalanceDownload: Activity & Assessment the water balance

2- Factors affecting river discharge: the storm hydrograph (Figure)
Practice how to describe the shape of a  storm hydrograph and how to explain it. Learn the definition of the key words. Learn the factors which affect it.

Storm hydrographActivities and Assessment The storm hydrograph

3- Physical and human causes of flooding – location of areas of high risk in a more developed and a less developed country case study, magnitude, frequency (risk) analysis (Figure).
Flood Frequency:
Flood frequencyMagnitude
refers to the severity of floods. This idea is required for 1 mark. A further mark is for elaboration, with reference to size of area affected, amount of damage done, the fact that it can be used to predict the return period of a flood event of a particular scale in conjunction with frequency.

1- Questions from the previous AS
(i) In what ways have human activities increased the risk of flooding in recent years? (7 marks)
(ii) Examine the physical factors responsible for flooding. (15)

2- Questions from the current AS:
(i) What is meant by the term ‘magnitude’ of a flood? (2 marks)
(ii) Explain one way in which people can cause flooding. (4)
(iii) Assess
the relative importance of physical and human causes of flooding. (15)
(iv) Physical factors are more important than human factors in affecting river discharge, Discuss this view,(15)

4- The long profile – changing processes: types of erosion, transportation and deposition, types of load; the Hjulstrom curve (Figure).
1- Questions from the previous AS
(i) How and why do
the dominant processes within a river channel change as distance from the source increases? (7 marks)
(ii) How and why does the load transported by rivers vary? (15 marks)
(iii) Why
do features of deposition exist throughout the long profile of most rivers? (7 marks)
(iv) Outline how
the relative importance of river processes changes along its long profile. (5 marks)
(v) How and why
does the bedload vary between the source and the mouth of a typical river? (6 marks)
(vi) Distinguish
between lateral and vertical erosion. (2 marks)
Specimen paper; Outline
the factors that cause rivers to deposit their load. (4 marks)
2- Questions from the current AS:
(i) Outline
the ways in which a river transports its load. (4)
(ii) Describe
how a river erodes material from its bed and banks.(3)
(iii) Describe
different types of load a river carries. (4)

The Hjulstrom curve shows the relationship between the velocity of a river and the size of particles than can be eroded, transported or deposited.

hjulstrom-curveQuestions from the current AS:
(i) Describe
the relationship between velocity and load size for the process of erosion. (4)
(ii) Based on Figure of Hjulstrom curve: Describe
the relationship between velocity, load size and transportation. (3)

5- Changing channel characteristics – cross profile, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius (Figure), roughness, efficiency and links to velocity and discharge.
Questions from the current AS:
(i) Explain why a river valley changes its cross profile downstream. (7)
(ii) Describe and explain how channel characteristics change downstream. (15)

6- Landforms of fluvial erosion and deposition – potholes, rapids, waterfalls, meanders, braiding, levees, flood plains and deltas. (Annotated diagrams)
1- Question from the previous AS
(i) How and why
do flood plains develop in the lower course of rivers? (7 marks)
(ii) Explain how flooding can contribute to the formation of depositional landforms. (15 marks)
Draw a labelled diagram(s) to show how and why meanders migrate. (5 marks)
2- Specimen paper:
When a river is flowing round a bend it is more likely to deposit on the inside of the bend rather than on the outside. Explain why. (4 marks)
(ii) Describe and explain the development of meanders. (15 marks)
3- Questions from the current AS:
(Based on photo) Describe these potholes and explain their formation. (7)
(ii) (Based on Figure of meander and flood plain): Describe the role of flooding in the formation of river landforms. (6) This question could also be a 15 mark question.
(iii) (Based on a photo of a waterfall) Explain the formation of the landform shown.(7)
(iv) Explain the formation of deltas (7)

7-Process and impact of rejuvenation – knick points, waterfalls, river terraces and incised meanders
Questions from the current AS:
(i) Describe and explain
the formation of landforms resulting from rejuvenation. (15)
(ii) Outline
the cause(s) of rejuvenation. (2)
(iii) Based on Figure: Describe the incised meander and explain its formation. (6)

Impact of flooding – two case studies of recent events should be undertaken from contrasting areas of the world.
Questions from the current AS:
the economic and social effects of flooding in two contrasting areas of the world. (15)
(ii) With reference to one case study, discuss the impact of flooding on people and the environment. (15)

9- Flood management strategies – to include hard engineering – dams, straightening, building up of levees, diversion spillways, and soft engineering – forecasts and warnings, land use management on floodplain, wetland and river bank conservation and river restoration.
1- Questions from the previous AS
(i) Examine
the issues surrounding measures taken to manage flooding. (15 marks)
2- Specimen paper: With reference to one or more examples that you have studied, discuss alternative ways of managing flood plains to reduce the risks to settlements from flooding. (15 marks)
3- Questions from the current AS:
(i) Discuss
the advantages and disadvantages of hard engineering as a flood management strategy. (15)
(ii) ‘Soft engineering is a better river flood management strategy than hard engineering’ Discuss this view. (15)
(iii) Photo of dam to describe. Comment on advantages and disadvantages of this flood management strategy. (6)
(iv) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of soft engineering as a river flood management strategy. [15 marks]


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