GCSE Unit 1 : Challenges for the planet

Unit 1: Geographical Skills and Challenges,
Time: 1 hour
The total mark for this paper is 54.
SECTION A – GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS  Total for Section A = 25 MARKS
Total for question on map skills: 14 marks
SECTION B – CHALLENGES FOR THE PLANET Total for section B = 29 MARKS
ITotal for spelling, punctuation and grammar = 4 marks)

1-Click on the following link to download the teacher’s notes. gcse-notes for unit-1-Section B-challenges-for-the-planet-2015
 2- Read the tips for revision.  3- Make your own notes

A- The causes, effects and responses to climate change

1- How has climate changed since the last ice
age?

How to describe changes? Figure 1 ,which shows the changes in global temperature, is annotated to describe the overall trend and the fluctuations.

Climate change

Climate change

2- Why has the world’s climate changed since the last ice age?

  • Explain climate change in terms of long term natural causes: orbital geometry.
  • Know the contribution solar input variations and volcanic activity make to climate change on shorter timescales.

Long term climatic changes are affected by the Earth’s orbital geometry:

Changes in the Earth's orbital geometry

Solar input variations and volcanic activity affect climate change on shorter timescales:

Solar output

Short term impact of volcanic eruptions

Short term impact of volcanic eruptions

*New* : Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 cooled global temperatures for a couple of years. It did so by pumping 20 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide high into the sky above the Philippines. The resulting droplets of sulphuric acid that formed on contact with moisture reflected incoming sunlight back out into space, preventing that radiation from warming the surface.
Watch: 1783- Laki eruption-Iceland- Effects of a volcanic eruption

Explain how two natural processes also contribute to climate change. (4)
Volcanoes (1) emitting dust that blocks incoming radiation (1). Orbital geometry (1) that changes the amount of solar energy received by Sun. Sunspot activity (1) affects mount of solar energy emitted (1). 2 marks from 2 different natural processes. (2 x 2)

3- The causes of climate change on a local and global scale, including the burning of fossil fuels and the increase of methane in the atmosphere.

  • Know the main greenhouse gases and their human sources. Draw a diagram of the enhanced greenhouse effect.
  • Describe how the concentration of greenhouse gases has changed.
  • Explain the process of global warming (enhanced greenhouse effect).

There is the greenhouse effect, and then there is global warming (enhanced greenhouse effect). The greenhouse effect is caused by certain gases (and clouds) absorbing and re-emitting the infrared radiating from Earth’s surface. It currently keeps our planet 20°C to 30°C warmer than it would be otherwise. Global warming is the rise in temperatures caused by an increase in the levels of greenhouse gases due to human activity.
Main greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide. The higher their amount in the atmosphere, the higher the temperature. Why?

Watch this video!

Learn the following annotated diagram!

The greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect

(a) Increase of the amount of carbon dioxide:
Burning of fossil fuels

Fossil fuels produced from coal, oil and natural gasè used to produce energy in power stations and to supply fuel to vehicles.
When fossil fuels are burnt, carbon dioxide is released, increasing the amount of long wave radiations absorbed by the atmosphere. For instance, in China 75 per cent of energy is produced from coal, the fossil fuel which releases the largest amount of carbon dioxide.
The growth of the world population and the economic growth of newly industrialized countries such as India and China explain an increase in the use of fossil fuels and in the amount of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere.

Explain how and why car exhaust emissions are a major contributor to global warming? (4)
Explanation to include four points given from:
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas emitted by car exhausts (1), that intercepts outgoing radiation (1), thus leading to warming (1). Major contributor as lots of cars/growing numbers of cars (1).
Explain how the burning of fossil fuels contributes to current climate change. (4)
1 mark per point. Max 2 marks for descriptive points. When fossil fuels are burnt they release gases which build up in the atmosphere. (1) One of these gases is carbon dioxide (1) which contributes to the greenhouse effect. (1) The greenhouse effect is when heat energy is trapped in the atmosphere (1) which causes temperatures to rise. (1)
Explain how fossil fuels have caused the increase in CO2 emissions. (4)
One mark per point. Causes have to be related to fossil fuels. Credit examples if given eg coal (1) Credit explanations if given at 1 mark each. Fossil fuels are burnt to provide energy(1). In China 75% of energy is produced form coal (1). There are many more cars on the road(1). For example, in Delhi, India, the number of cars has grown from half a million in 1970 to 5 million in 2008(1). Cars use fossil fuels to power them (1).

(b) Increase of methane
Methane (20 per cent of the greenhouse gases, 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide)
Where does it come from?
From organisms, fossil or recently dead and those alive today.
Source of methane today:
1-Fossil methane (30 per cent of the methane released) comes to the surface when fossil fuels are mined.
2- Modern methane: wetlands, growing of rice, landfills, burning vegetation, bowels of animals
Why have levels of methane been rising by 1.5 per cent for the past decade?
(i) Increase in the mining of fossil fuels due to the growing world population and the economic growth of newly industrialised countries such as China and India.
(ii) Rising temperature, which cause an increase in bacteria emissions from wetlands.
(iii) Increase in rice production due to the growing population in rice producing countries.
(iv)Increase in the number of cattle and sheep for meat reflecting an increase in Western-style diets, for instance in Asian countries.

There has been an increase in the amount of methane being released into the atmosphere. Suggest reasons why. (3)
One mark per point Points can be developed with greater reasoning or specific examples. There has been a large increase in the population (1) of countries such as China (1) therefore more rice is being grown. (1) Large areas of Rainforest have been burnt to provide land for cattle farming (1)

4 – The negative effects that climate change is having on the environment and people, including changing patterns of crop yield, rising sea levels and retreating glaciers, on a local and global scale.

  • Explain how a changing climate could affect farming and crop yields.
  • Describe changes in sea level recently and in the future.
  • Know some of the global impacts of sea-level rise.
  • Use an example to show what the impact of sea-level rise could be locally. Make a factfile on the impacts of rising sea levels on Bangladesh.
  • Know the impacts of retreating glaciers.

Scientists predict that if global temperatures continue to rise at their current rate, Earth will be one degree warmer within 10 years, two degrees warmer within the next 40 years and three degrees or more before the end of the century. If the Earth’s temperature increases to three degrees warmer than the average pre-industrial temperature, the impact on the planet will be catastrophic. Across the Earth, ways of life could be lost forever as climate change accelerates out of control.

Watch: A series of short videos on the impacts of global warming: 1-6 degrees could change the world

Effects are at different scales.

  • Global effects affect the world e.g. Rising sea level
  • Global effects may affect specific countries or areas. e.g. Impact of rising sea level on Tuvalu.These are local effects.

Of the many environmental impacts imposed by climate change, rising sea levels are often discussed. The cause of this may not be as obvious as it seems. While a portion of the increase comes from the likes of melting glaciers, another more surprising phenomenon helps to explain the increase in water volume: Thermal Expansion.

Effects at a global scale Effects at a local scale
Changing pattern of crop yields 1-Countries closest to the equator are likely to suffer the most as their crop yield will decrease.2- In Africa, countries such as Tanzania will have longer periods of drought and shorter growing seasons.3- This is due to hotter and drier weather. Kenya: Droughts now happen every three years instead of every ten years. In 2006 Kenya suffered its worst drought for 80 years. Many farmers lost all of their cattle.
Rising sea levels (due to ice melting)1- Between 1993 and 2006 sea levels rose 3.3mm a year. This will lead to an 88cm rise in sea levels by the end of the century.2- This rise will threaten large areas of low lying coastal land including major world cities such as London.3- Many islands in the Pacific Ocean are already being affected by rising sea levels Tuvalu + Case study on Bangladesh
Tuvalu,
a group of nine coral atolls– ringlike coral island and reef that nearly or entirely encloses a lagoon- in the Pacific Ocean, has started to evacuate its population to New Zealand, with 75 people moving away each year.  
Retreating glaciers1- The vast majority of the world’s glaciers are retreating, due to the increase in temperatures caused by climate change2- 90 per cent of the glaciers in Antarctica are retreating.3- The melting of the ice in the Arctic could cause the Gulf Stream to be diverted further south and this will lead to colder temperatures in western Europe Glacier National Park (USA)
Created in 1910- At the time there were 150 glaciers. Since then the number has decreased to 30. It is predicted that within 30 years most, if not all, of the park’s glaciers will have disappeared. 
River flooding due to more storms  UK: Due to climate change, there will be more storms and floods. If homes and factories continue to be built on floodplains, the cost of flood damage will increase.
Impact on ecosystems  Either Wrangel Island (Russia)
There has been a loss of sea ice due to climate change. This is a problem for polar bears because they cannot travel overland to catch their prey.or Barrier Reef in Australia A Greenpeace report predicts that the Great Barrier Reef in Australia will be dead within 30 years due to rising sea temperatures
Impact on water supply  The Colca Region in Peru
Villages have been abandoned because they no longer have a water supply due to the lack of snow falling on the mountains.
What is the Gulf Stream?

What is the Gulf Stream?


Watch:
The following video shows the impact of rising sea level on Pacific islanders

What is a glacier?

What is a glacier

Describe the negative effects that climate change is having on the environment. Use examples in your answer. (4)
One mark per point Max 2 no examples Max 3 if only one example is given. An example could be Polar Bear or Great Barrier Reef of Maldives for coral reefs. Credit – habitat loss. Flooding and drought will not be credited unless linked to an area which may be a located example. Sea levels are rising (1) low lying areas will be flooded (1) in places such as the Maldives(1) Crop yields are decreasing (1), in countries such as Tanzania (1) Glaciers are retreating (1) in Antarctica (1) Answers can be about the effects on both people and the environment. Do not accept global impacts of deforestation.
Outline the negative effects of a rise in global temperatures. (4)
1 mark per point. Max 2 if list. If global temperatures rise some countries will be flooded.(1) such as the Maldives (1) Some countries in Africa will have longer periods of drought (1) and be unable to grow crops. (1) Other answers could focus on retreating glaciers, melting ice caps.  

5- The responses to the challenges of climate change on a local to a global scale, e.g. ‘live simply’ campaigns.

  • Describe how individual actions/lifestyle changes could reduce greenhouse emissions. Make a list of personal actions that could reduce consumption/pollution
  • Recognise that attitudes to climate change differ among contrasting groups.
  • Describe responses at a local scale in the UK.
  • Make brief notes on the Las Vegas example.
  • Consider how Las Vegas could be made more sustainable/reduce its carbon footprint and how likely this is.

Individual responses: How to live sustainably

Sustainable ways

Benefits

Use local farmers market- Don’t buy imported food! Supports local farmers and reduces the coasts of transport and the amount of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere
Reduce the unnecessary luxuries in your life- how many pairs of shoes do you have? Do you really need a new mobile phone? Reduces the waste of resources in their production, their packaging and their transport.
Get on your bike! Cars are great polluters. Help reduce carbon dioxide emissions!
Recycle and conserve! Materials are reused (decrease of waste) and resources saved. Better to switch of a light off than leave it on!

Local scale responses (4 marks for each scheme)
-by schools
-by local councils
-by local interest groups

    1-By schools: ‘Livesimply’ campaign
When
: 2007 by the Catholic Church
Why? To encourage students to think about their impact on the word and sustainable development (sustainability). (What is sustainable development? Page 23 ‘development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’)
How? Energy efficient water and central heating systems run from renewable sources such as wind turbines and solar panels.

        2-By local councils
When
: from April 2008
Local councils important in the reduction of carbon emissions as they have an influence on local home owners. (15 per cent of the UK’s carbon emissions produced by houses)
£4 million from the government to help them. Example of local council: the City of London
How? Giving away free low energy light bulbs, CHP (Combined heat and power) scheme

      3- By local interest groups
Named example: ‘Manchester is my planet’
When
: From 2005
How?  ‘Pledge campaign’ to encourage individuals to reduce their carbon footprint.
Green Badge Parking Permit given to owners of low carbon emission cars. Allow them to buy an annual parking permit for car parks within Great Manchester at a 25 per cent discount. More than 20,000 individuals have pledged
There have been a range of responses to climate change on a local level, such as the ‘live simply’ campaign. Choose one scheme that you have studied. Outline the main details of the scheme. (4)
One mark per descriptive point. Credit explanations if given but can still get max marks with descriptive points. No mark for the name of the scheme. Live Simply campaign can be their chosen study. Points such as switch off lights when leaving a room (1)Don’t leave computers on stand-by (1) Walk or take the bus to school.(1)
Explain one local response to climate change. (3)
One mark per point. Max one mark if there are only descriptive comments or an implicit link to climate change. The answers could relate to schools, local councils and interest groups or even householders. For example, ‘live simple’ (1) which was initiated by the Catholic Church to encourage students to make choices about how they live.(1) Resources were given to schools to make students more aware of how energy production can cause climate change. (1) By walking to school there will be less emissions.(1)

6- The responses to the challenges of climate change on a global scale, e.g. world superpower meetings (Bali in 2007).

  • Produce a timeline of actions to tackle global warming.
  • Explain the timeline of international action to tackle global warming.
  • Describe national strategies to reduce emissions in this global context.
  • Recognise that some countries are more prepared to act than others.

Global agreements between nations (6 marks)
Time line:

June 1992: Earth summit (Rio de Janeiro)
Decisions made by the most powerful countries about their response to climate change.
First international environmental treaty which aimed to stabilise greenhouse gases.
Lead to
– The Kyoto Protocol (December 1997) which came into force in February 2005
Goals of the Kyoto Protocol:
1-Countries that signed and ratified the protocol agreed to cut greenhouse emissions by 5.2 per cent compared with 1990 levels.
2- Each country agreed to a national limit on emissions for instance 8 per cent for the EU.
3- Allowed increases for Iceland and Australia as they were not using all their carbon allowance.
Strategies to achieve these goals:
-Cut emissions
-Trade with other countries in carbon.
How? A country could buy carbon credits from another country. e.g.Iceland could trade 2 per cent of its carbon credits with the EU to enable the EU to meet its target of 8 per cent.

Watch: Carbon Trading Simplified

End of timeline:
December 2007: Climate change conference (Bali)è Bali Roadmap: initiatives to try to reach a secure future climate.
– Last conference: December 2011: Climate change conference (Durban ) to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions.
The conference agreed to a legally binding deal comprising all countries, which will be prepared by 2015, and to take effect in 2020. There was also progress regarding the creation of a Green Climate Fund (GCF) for which a management framework was adopted. The fund is to distribute US$100 billion per year to help poor countries adapt to climate impacts.

Describe one response to climate change on a global scale. (3)
International body identified (1) basic ‘what they did’ e.g. Kyoto agreement (1) extension of what they did – who/what where extension (1)

B- Sustainable development for the planet

1- Definitions and interpretations of sustainable development.

  • To know definitions of sustainable development.
  • To consider different ways of defining sustainable development.

Global interpretation:
(i) 1980: Brundtland report by United Nations
Definition
: development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Key areas (3 bullet points) Learn page 23
– environment
– social equality
– economic growth

(ii) 1997 UNESCO meeting
Responsibility of the present generation towards future generations:

    • Bequeath an Earth which had not been permanently damaged by human activity
    • Use natural resources reasonably
    • Life not harmed by modifications to ecosystems e.g. genetically modified organism. The safety of GMOs in the foodchain has been questioned by some environmental groups

Sustainable development should not hinder development but give a better quality of life both now and the future.

Local interpretation: Four key sustainable areas in the UK (learn page 23)
– Climate change and energy
– Natural resources
– Sustainable communities
– Sustainable consumption and production

2- The development of policies of large organisations to make them more sustainable.

  • Understand what large organisations are.
  • To know how large organisations, e.g. TNCs, try to make themselves more sustainable through actions.
  • Critically review these actions.

(i) During the manufacturing of the product: A global company- General electric

General Electric
(ii) In the recycling of packaging material: The food industry- Asda/Wal-Mart

Asda
(iii) By encouraging customers to recycle products: The communications industry- Nokia

Nokia
(iv) By encouraging employees to be more sustainable in the workplace

– Use of video conferences
– Bins to recycle waste products
– Internet used at school to reduce use of paper.
Explain how large organisations are becoming more sustainable in the workplace. Use examples in your answer. (6)

Dartmoor National Park Authority is one large organisation that is being more sustainable. Explain the policies one other large organisation has developed to make it more sustainable. (3)
Answer should contain the name of a company and then explain what they are doing.

3- The management of transport in urban areas, including the public versus private debate.

  • Understand the difference between public and private transport.
  • Consider the impact on transport on the environment.
  • Weigh-up different ways of making transport more sustainable

Definition: Sustainable transport involves maintaining the standard of transport that is required for society and the economy to function efficiently without placing too much pressure on the environment.

The ‘public versus private’ debate
Making cities more sustainable is not easy. This is the goal of the transport policies that have been introduced in many cities. Public transport will always be more efficient and use fewer resources than private transport.
Problem: Great dependency on private cars. Car ownership growing rapidly in LICs and HICs, Car drivers will not use public transport until it is cheaper, properly organised and efficient.

Sustainable Development Strategy in the UK
– Control the rate of traffic growth
– Improve the performance of vehicles
– Reduce dependency on cars
-Availability of affordable public transport systems

Sustainable transport schemes to reduce traffic in the UK
(i)- Congestion charging
Case study: London (2003)

Practice of making motorists pay to travel into large urban areas during periods of heaviest use. Why? To reduce the number of vehicles entering the city, ease traffic congestion/lower pollution emissions. Learn the 5 bullet points on beneficial effects.

What is meant by the term congestion charging
What is meant by the term congestion charge? (2)
This is when motorists are charged to go into city/town centres (1). It is usually charged during times of heaviest use.(1) In London the charge is £8 / £10 (1). the charge applies during peak periods (1)
Give reasons why cities like Durham have introduced congestion charging. (3)
One mark per point including development of a point. For instance:
· To stop congestion in city centre
· To control / reduce the flow of traffic across the city
· People use park and ride instead of driving into the city
· To help stop pollution
· To make city centres safer
· To raise money

(ii)- Park and Ride
Shoppers park their cars in large designated free parking areas located on the main routes on the edge of the urban area and catch a bus into town centre. Why? 40 people travel on one bus rather than in 40 individual car = less congestion and pollution.
        Case study: Cambridge park and ride
5 park and ride sites covering the main routes coming into the city. E.g. The Milton and Newmarket road sites are close to the A14 giving easy access for motorists. 4,500 parking space available. Double-decker buses carrying up to 70 passengers leave the parks every 10 minutes. Costs £2.20 per day to catch the bus

Park and Ride is a sustainable transport scheme used in many urban areas. Explain how Park and Ride is a sustainable transport scheme. Use an example in your answer. (4)
Credit points about what is meant by Park and Ride.People park their cars in a car park on the edge of the city. (1) They do not pay to park but pay for the bus journey. (1) It is sustainable because people are not driving into the city (1) which stops congestion (1) it helps to cut down use of fossil fuels (1) helps to decrease global warming. (1) For example Cambridge has a park and ride scheme (1). This means that you can park your car on the outskirts of the city and get a bus into the centre(1). You do not pay to park your car (1). You do have to pay for the bus ride (1), it costs £2.20 per person (1).

Using examples, discuss how sustainable schemes can be used to manage transport in urban areas.(9)

4- The effects of resource extraction from tropical rainforests

  • Define ‘resources’.
  • Describe the environment of the tropical rainforest.
  • Draw a labelled diagram of the layers in a TRF, i.e. the biodiversity.
  • Outline a range of ways resources are extracted and the impacts this has on the environment.
  • Research a range of resource extraction examples, e.g. oil extraction in Oriente, Ecuador, and palm-oil production in Papua New Guinea.

Define ‘resources’.
Natural resources are materials that can be found within the environment. A natural resource may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, and air, as well as a living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an alternate form which must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, oil, and most forms of energy.
Describe the environment of the tropical rainforest.
How are tropical rainforests distributed?

  • Broad but discontinuous belt of vegetation between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
  • Largest area in South America, mostly in Brazil- Amazon.
  • West Africa- Congo Basin.
  • Small area on the east coast of Madagascar.
  • Indonesia.
  • Northern east Australia and parts of South-east Asia.

    Layers in the tropical rainforest

    Layers in the tropical rainforest

-Five separate layers
– Combinations of plants and animals in a specific vertical zone. About 80% of the world’s documented species can be found in tropical rainforests.
– Many different species of woody climbing plants=Lianas.Forest floorè grow upwards by twining around trunks.
– Vast numbers of epiphytes: Green plants that grow on trunks and branches, but not parasitic.

Effects:
Learn  page 30:
(a) Impacts on people
(b) Impacts on environment of 4 case studies:
(i)- Mining in Brazil
(ii)- logging in Cameroon
(iii)- Oil extraction in Ecuador
(iv)- Gas project in Peru
Outline the effects of resource extraction on tropical rainforest environments and the people who live there. Use examples in your answer. (4)
One mark per descriptive point. Credit explanations if given but can still get max marks with descriptive points Unspecific points (no examples) max 2 . Max 3 if only one example given. The examples can be from the same country. An example would be the name of country and some information about what is happening to the people who live there e.g. Ecuador. Stomach cancer is 5 times more frequent in the people of the Huaorani becomes of Toxic water from Oil extraction.Answers can go to max without both people and the environment. Do not accept global impacts of deforestation.
Explain the effects of resource extraction on tropical rainforest areas. Use examples in y
our answer. (6)

5- The management of tropical rainforests

  • Outline ways of managing rainforests in sustainable ways, e.g. forest reserves.
  • Describe how international programmes and treaties can help manage deforestation.

 Explain two effects of resource extraction in tropical rainforest areas. One effect should be on the environment and the other on the local people. (4)
In all cases – basic description of what is happening (1) why this damages local people/environment. (1)
Logging in the Cameroon
Has opened up the forest to everyone. Animals such as elephants and gorillas are being hunted (1) For second mark here expect link to be made as in … to everyone (1)so more people are hunting with elephants and gorillas being killed (1 )Local Baka people work in the sawmills they are not given protection from the toxic products which are sprayed on the wood to preserve it from fungus (1) so they become ill (1)

Oil extraction in Ecuador
Hydrocarbons are concentrated in the river water (1) The local people drink the river water, stomach cancer is five times more frequent in oil exploitation areas. (1) Hydrocarbons are concentrated in the river water (1) Many plants such as the periwinkle are now an endangered species (1)

From 1964 to 1992 Texaco (now Chevron) built and operated oil exploration and production facilities in the northern region of the Ecuadorian Amazon, known as the “Oriente”. Over three decades of oil drilling in the Ecuadorian Amazon, Chevron dumped more than 18 billion gallons of toxic wastewater into the rainforest, leaving local people suffering a wave of cancers, miscarriages and birth defects.


Gold and copper mining in Indonesia

The waste material from gold and copper mining in Indonesia is dumped into the River Aghawaghon (1) This pollutes the river (1)

(b) Tropical rainforest management
4 different ways:
1- Government of countries take control of their forest areas:
(a) Malaysia
(i)-Government rejected plans to build a coal-fired power plant
at Salam, on the island of Borneo.Why? Site too close to the ecological sensitive areas of Darvel Bay and Danum Valley.
Management: Use of more sustainable forms of energy
(ii)- No exploitation of coal and minerals such as gold.Why? Located in the rainforest which has endangered species such as the orang-utan.
Management: Development of ecotourism ènatural attractions such  as diving and biodiversity

(b) Venezuela
No permit to mine gold and diamonds since 2008èConservation of the biodiversity of the rainforest èProtection of the local people from illegals miners.

(c) Costa Rica
Developing of the rainforest in a sustainable way.
(i) Through ecotourism: Tourist facilities such as zip wiring and trails through the forest.
(ii) Through plant species: – American company Merck allowed to look for plants which can be used to make medicines or perfumes share of the profit goes to the government

2- Management through carbon credits: Bolivia
How
? Set aside some of the forest in developing countries and receive carbon credits which can be bought by industrialised countries.
Bolivia: project based in the Noel Kempff National Park which is an area of 1.5 million hectaresè£25 million by selling the carbon credit of this area.
Money has gone to the communities who live in the areas as compensation; no longer dependent upon logging and destroying the forest to farm to earn a living.
3- Local indigenous people take oil companies to court : Ecuador.
Oil extraction from the Amazon rainforest in Ecuador since the 1960s. No management of effects of the extraction by companies. Local indigenous people have taken the oil companies to court. Texaco have agreed to pay $40 million to cover its share of cleanup of waste pits created (not enough, $6 billion needed)

4- Describe how international programmes and treaties can help manage deforestation.
WWF’s work on protecting rainforest.
Click here:  WWF rainforests
Working to Reduce Deforestation
WWF advocates for governments, international bodies and other stakeholders to make zero net deforestation a reality by 2020.
Way of managing rainforest in sustainable ways: Case Study: Papua New Guinea
Located in South-east Asia /Pacific Ocean. Third largest area of rainforest in the world. Rich ecosystem.
Kikori basin, Gulf Province.
a-     
Eco-forestry: Promotion of ecologically and socially sensitive, community-based forestry enterprises.
Minimal environmental impact in harvested areas:
Very few trees are cut per hectare.
Logs are floated on waterways.
No roads are constructed.
No heavy machinery is operated.
WWF has established and eco-forestry company, Kikori pacific, which acts as a marketing agent and provides training for community-based eco-forestry groups.

b-      Eco-tourist Lodge: Establishment of a locally-owned and operated eco-tourist lodge on the shores of Lake Kutubuè Tubo lodge.
Built from traditional materials,
Caters to visitors looking for a wilderness experience.

Explain how resource extraction from tropical rainforest areas is being managed. Use examples in your answer. (6)Identification of type of resource extraction (1) detail of damage done/nature of problem (1) how managed e.g. laws, agreements etc. (1) details of that – impact of this management (1) example as outlined below.Examples might ‘examples of management’, ‘examples of different types of resource extraction’ or ‘different locations’ in the rainforest.

In many areas of the world tropical rainforests are under threat. With the use of examples explain some of the ways in which tropical rainforests are being managed. (6)

The world leaders were keen to reduce deforestation. Suggest reasons why. (2)
One mark per point. Reasons suggested could be about less carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere(1) or less oxygen is released into the atmosphere (1). Or about disruption to rainfall patterns(1).

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